Remix, Revise, and Redefine:

The Importance of Context in Sampling


I did not hear the phrase ‘who will survive in America’ from the original artist, Gil Scott Heron, but instead from Kanye West. I did not hear the bassline from Lou Reed’s ‘Walk On the Wild Side’ from the song itself, but the instead from the popular Tribe Called Quest song that samples it- ‘Can I Kick it?’ For many, the first time they heard Lauren Hill’s voice wasn’t in her own work, but instead on Drake’s ‘Nice for What’ track. The list goes on and on. Numerous songs are known to people not through the actual song itself, but instead from the samples that have redefined them.

In his book Rhythm Science, D.J Spooky aka that Subliminal kid (Paul Miller), demonstrates his idea that sampling pervades and exists within all components of our culture. He claims that music and sampling are “utterly malleable material” (20), and that “any sound can be you” (24). Gil Scott Heron’s work exemplifies the malleability of music and the effects of sampling culture through its broad impact. Heron’s work is best known not on its own, but primarily through the context of hip hop sampling. Thus, when most people hear ‘the revolution will not be televised,’ or ‘who will survive in America’ they don’t immediately think of a Harlem poet, but instead of a Kanye West track. In a recent article on Heron, Andrew Nosnitsky stated,“it doesn’t take long to see past the catchphrase and recognize him as a much more complex artist and human” (Nosnitsky). However, few people actually do experience Heron past his catchphrase. Like many heavily sampled artists, Heron’s work and its meaning is completely transformed and reduced in totality. Heron’s work effectively reinforces Miller’s claim that music is ‘utterly malleable material,’ and that it is impossible for any work of art not to be remixed, revised, or redefined. 

Miller’s Claims on Remixing

Miller makes the claim in his writing and art that sampling, remixing, and revising are fundamental aspects not just of modern hip-hop culture, but of human existence. In his book, Rhythm Science, Miller’s writing and the physical style of his book intersect in numerous ways. Miller defines rhythm science as “a forensic investigation of sound as a vector of a coded language that goes from the physical to the informational and back again” (5). It is notable that Miller focuses on how rhythm science is all about repetition, going from physical to informational, and ‘back again’. Miller claims that DJ’ing is based highly in repetition, as it is “all about reprocessing the world around you” (29). The interesting thing about Miller’s physical work and his topic is that both are based around the same thing: DJ’ing and sampling. Miller repeats, redefines, and reprocesses his definition of rhythm science throughout the book, thus following along with the fundamentals of DJ’ing and sampling. Miller also relies upon the DJ’ing pillar that is repetition, by including similarly styled green pages every other page, and by including the same break in the middle of each page. The break itself is caused by the physical CD within the book- another example of Miller connecting the physicality of his work to the reality of it. He claims, “DJing is writing, writing is DJing” exemplifying that to Miller, they are the same. There is no distinction between his physical book, the topic of his writing, and DJing and sampling. They all exist together as one. Through both his writing and the physical structure of his book, Miller exemplifies his idea that sampling, DJ’ing, and remixing are fundamental parts of music and life, showing us that “any sound can be you” (64). 

 ‘Comment #1’ and ‘Who Will Survive in America’

‘Comment #1’ is a thought-provoking poem by Gil Scott-Heron in which Heron focuses on a criticism of race in America. ‘Comment #1’ includes a “mockery of white radicals,” visceral imagery of the slave trade, numerous components of self-hatred, and a devastating call for equality and change (Patrin). Additionally, the recording of his poem includes an up-tempo drum beat in the background. However, the far more popular track, ‘Who Will Survive in America’, by Kanye West, which was released 40 years after Heron’s original recording, includes only a short snippet in a one minute and thirty-eight-second-long song. Kanye completely redefines ‘Who Will Survive in America’ not because he adds any more lyrics–he doesn’t–but simply because he releases it in a unique time period, via an alternative medium of expression, and as a different individual. 

The phrase “Who will survive in America” is the centerpiece of the sample Kanye uses from ‘Comment #1’. For many, the first time they hear this phrase spoken in Heron’s voice, it is not in Heron’s own poem, but instead as the final track on Kanye’s album, My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. ‘Comment #1’ has only 201,414 plays on Spotify, whereas Kanye’s ‘Who Will Survive in America’ has 13,674,809 (both as of April 24, 2019). 

 ‘Who Will Survive in America’ does not add any new words and simply places a snippet of the original work over a different background beat. However, the literal change in the sound is not the only difference between these two works. Scott’s criticism of white radicals who “exercise the luxury of dropping out of society so they can fight for the cause of smoking pot and fucking in the streets” while they continue to ignore the basic needs of the African American community (basic civil rights, food, housing) is radically changed when heard in 2010 as opposed to 1970. When we think of the phrase ‘who willsurvive in America,’ it sounds different on Kanye’s album than it does on Heron’s, even though we are hearing almost the exact same thing. This process of sampling and re-contextualizing sound is an integral part of sampling culture, especially within hip-hop music. The context of 2010, Kanye West, and the other songs on Kanye’s album alter the meaning of Heron’s poem, whether Heron intends it or not. 

Impact on my Own Understanding of Music and Remixing

My writing class, Voice, Noise, Sound, and Sensedrastically altered my understanding of music, especially in regard to originality and sampling. In my second writing project I focused on the sampling choices on the album Yeezusby Kanye West. I wrote that in order,

“to create the track ‘Blood on the Leaves’, Kanye sampled ‘Strange Fruit’– a song written by Billie Holiday about the murders of African Americans by lynching. This song undoubtedly carries an important and heavy weight in terms of race in America. Kanye chooses to take this intense song about murder and morph it into one about an unhealthy, oversexualized, and drug fueled relationship as demonstrated by his lines, “my second-string bitches,” and “when you tried your first molly” (Blood on the Leaves).” (Lodish).  

The song ‘Blood on the Leaves’ completely changes its meaning when the listener recognizes the sampling choices that go into it. Suddenly, a song that on the surface appears to be only about sex and drugs transitions into one about race and violence, once the listener recognizes that the sample comes from a song about lynching. 

In some ways, I agree with Miller that everything is connected to sampling and repurposing. However, this course has shown me the importance of context in regard to sound. I have learned that although sound canbe re-adapted and repurposed, it is supremely important to learn the roots of music, not only to increase understanding of a work, but also gain a deeper knowledge of the sonic framework for music itself. At the end of the day, it’s almost impossible to not constantly re-contextualize music and art in regard to time. As many people are unaware the deep context and history within songs, our understanding of music, and ownership of it is drastically altered.

Looking Forward

Now when I listen to my favorite hip hop tracks, I am always sure to consider the samples they utilize. When I hear a new hip-hop song, I check My brother and I even created a playlistof our favorite hip hop songs along with the samples they use. I would have never listened to Pastor T.L Bennet without first hearing the sample Kanye took in ‘Father Stretch my Hands’. Bennet is currently one of my favorite artists. I now appreciate and listen to Lou Reed, Lauren Hill, Gill-Scott Heron, and countless artists, thanks to a deeper understanding of sampling.

Miller is right when he claims sampling is everything. Yet, it is important to understand those samples and their origin. Otherwise, when you hear ‘Who Will Survive in America’ or ‘Blood on the Leaves’ you may misunderstand their significance, causing parts of the meaning and history to be lost.


Patrin, Nate. “Gil Scott-Heron.” Pitchfork, Pitchfork, 30 May 2011,

Rhythm Science. MIT Press, 2004.

Nosnitsky, Andrew. “Gil Scott-Heron: More Than a Revolution.” Pitchfork, Pitchfork, 18 Jan. 2012,

Lodish, Josh. “White Freedom: Kanye West’s Refusal To Give Into Societal Notions On Race And Music My Blog”. Joshlodish.Com, 2019,

Controlling Sonic Spaces

Wall Academic Center, a panoramic shot


This writing project was designed to explore the relationship between physical space and sonic space, focused specifically on the dichotomy between quiet and noisy sonic environments. Two spaces I often work in at Davidson College are Wall Academic Center and Chambers Lawn. These two physical spaces each contain two sonic environments based almost entirely around contrast. In order to understand the connection between physical space and sonic environments as they relate to work, I compare my experience in these two physical spaces, and four sonic environments. With help and contextualization from sound students such as R. Murray Schafer, Shuhei Hosokawa, and Michel Chion, and my own recordings from these locations, I describe the dichotomous auditory aspects of Wall Academic Center and Chambers Lawn, coming to an understanding of my innate desire to control sonic environments.


My ability to work and the quality of my work are undoubtedly connected to the environments in which I find myself. What I call my “Mind Environment”, is the setting and state of my thoughts, is interconnected with and dependent on my physical environment. Sitting in an open and expansive outdoor setting is the ideal physical space to write, as my creative process is not confined by my physical environment. When I am doing computer science, or a similar singularly focused, non-creative assignment, I prefer to constrict my mind environment by placing myself in a smaller, confined space, usually with few windows. Not only is a mind environment deeply connected to physical space, but sonic environments are also dependent on physical space.

A sonic environment is distinctly unique when compared to a physical environment because although sonic environments are dependent on physical environments, sonic environments can and do change often. Just as my ability to be creative and think expansively is dependent on my physical environment, my ability to work effectively is dependent on my sonic environment. 


When in Wall, my ‘mind environment’ is expanded effectively. I can sit and write at the counter on the third floor, always facing out, with a view ahead of the atrium descending two stories beneath me. To my right are grand windows, and the porch which I frequent on sunny days when I need isolation. However, Wall rarely exists for me as a spot of solitude. I spend a substantial amount of time working with my friends there. There are two general states in which I work with my friends: working in silence, and ‘working’ while conversing. These states create two distinct sonic environments which must be navigated with vastly different tactics in order to succeed within them. 

Silent Wall, April 4, 2019

Working in silence creates a sonic environment in which I can be most productive. In his writing on the characteristics of sonic environments, R. Murray Schafer coins many useful terms with which to assess the relationship between physical space and sonic space. He describes signals, sounds “listened to consciously,” which constitute an “acoustic warning,” such as a bell or alarm (Shafer 101). The background of a sonic environment, what sets its tone, is referred to as a keynote, created by the “geography and climate” of a physical environment (Shafer 101). The sounds of Wall in this state serve as keynotes, sounds which are not “listened to consciously; they are overheard” (Shafer 100). The hum of the radiators is accompanied by the occasional movement from the entrance of the building below me, and the hushed whisper of Jack whose studying technique involves quiet rehearsing of information he is trying to retain. If I listen closely, I can learn about social psychology, and the habits of subconscious reinforcement of stereotyping that Jack is studying. However, that has nothing to do with my writing class, so I try and tune it out. Every so often I hear a burst of laughter from Landon, his giggles from twitter videos fill the room. At first, these laughs halted my work. The sound of a laugh is inherently communal- others always want to be involved. However, Landon enjoys his solitary laugh, and over time we have learned not to inquire into his laughter, as he usually is not keen to share.

My headphones are a constant presence in this sonic environment- usually not even playing music. I put in the headphones to indicate to others that I do not want to talk. My use of headphones recalls Shuhei Hosakawa’s theories of the Walkman; “generated in the distance it poses between…the others and the I,” as my friends understand these headphones act as a barrier to the potential conversations we are tempted to have (Hosokawa 109). All of these sonic tactics demonstrate my attempt to control my sonic environment by regulating the sounds I experience. Nonetheless, I cannot always control my sonic environment effectively.

The second sonic environment I experience studying in Wall is conversation with friends. Normally I want to be in conversation with these people. It is a challenging process to study (and try to be silent) with them. The tiniest joke, sigh, or reminder of an event will trigger a removal of my headphones and an initiation of a discussion (at 1:41 in the recording below, this happens).

‘Working’ in Wall, April 4, 2019

I stop my work and delve into the boisterous sonic environment of friendship. This environment has its own hum, but one I chose to focus in upon. It is filled with laughter, occasional arguments, and gentle questioning. In this sense it is not uniform, and does not possess a consistent keynote. Sounds differ each time it is initiated. This sonic environment is fully distinct from the quiet hum of Wall without conversation. The two sonic environments of Wall are the same physical spaces but couldn’t be more different in the way they sound. One is filled with the calming whirring of machines, and the other with joyful, yet distracting exchanges between friends. 


Another unique and dichotomous sonic environment is my favorite chair on campus, a seasoned green Adirondack nestled beneath a tree in Chambers Lawn. Like the Wall Center, Chambers Lawn exists in two drastically different mediums. The first in silence.

Silence on Chambers Lawn, April 1, 2019

This setting is peaceful- birds tweet, wind whistles, and the sun glimpses through the clouds and the thick branches of the tree overhead. This sonic environment is cohesive and calm, and exists in an almost idyllic hum. It provides for a perfect backdrop to read a book, develop and organize papers, or simply reflect. The birds serve as a signal, causing me to “consciously” listen to each individual whistle (Shafer 101). It is not often that I listen to a sound so intently, experiencing it as Michel Chion might say, “as itself the object to be observed” (Chion 50), focusing on “the emotional, physical, and aesthetic value,” and the “qualities of timbre and texture, to its own personal vibrations” (Chion 51). The sounds of the birds feel almost youthful. They are communicative, sharp, and simultaneously disjointed yet harmonious. As I rest in my chair, content and relaxed, I am able to focus on the sounds around me. I know the birds probably aren’t playing and joking, but it certainly sounds like they are. This laid-back and quiet sonic environment is quick to change, however.

Chambers Lawn, Noise, April 8, 2019 (disclaimer, the bell is challenging to hear)

At once, I hear a different signal-a bell tolling in the distance. Class is out. With this booming command from the bell tower, the sonic environment completely changes to its second state. Almost immediately, a flood of students burst out of chambers, emerging from class. They break into the lawn complaining about professors, engaging in their course materials, and discussing plans for the weekend. My idyllic sonic environment filled only with soft wind and birds tweeting joyfully is now overcome with a roaring hum of communication. My Adirondack chair, set quietly aside from the path, now feels thrown into the middle of sonic chaos. As the keynoteof the environment pivots to one of social interaction, I am first taken aback, then settle in. Eventually, the voices of my peers become a backdrop to the environment. They blend in as the wind and silence did to the first sonic environment of Chambers Lawn. I intentionally try not to pick out voices and remain set aside- disengaged from the sounds around me. Nonetheless, as friends walk by and call my name, which is perhaps the greatest signalfor any individual, I turn my head and smile. 

After ten short minutes of a noisy Chambers lawn, the sonic environment completes another shift. We return to silence. Students are back in class. I can hear the birds again, and I can focus on the rush of the wind. I have not, and will not move for a while – yet the sounds around me have changed. They have changed the way I interacted with my environment. I first intentionally tuned into the silence, and then attempted to block out the noise. 


Sounds have a significant impact on an experience within a physical space. Sonic environments can exist in numerous modes, while physical environments remain largely unchanged. Certain physical environments are created for a specific sonic experience (religious spaces, performance halls, recording studious), and others evolve on their own (natural and community spaces). Even through this listening and writing process designed to experience sounds and their properties unto themselves, I still focused on the ways in which I could manipulate sound, drown in out, and maintain the aspects I wanted. I based my conscious listening project entirely around manipulation, not appreciation or understanding of sounds. This demonstrates how incredibly challenging it is to critically assess and think about sounds themselves without prioritizing the control or manipulation of those sounds. There is much work to be done societally and individually in sound studies. We are conditioned to alter our sonic environments, create ideal sonic spaces, and not to purely experience sounds for the qualities they possess. 

 Works Cited

Schafer, R. Murray. “The Soundscape,” Sound Studies Reader. Edited by Jonathan Sterne, Taylor and Francis, 2012.

Hosokawa, Shuhei. “The Walkman Effect,” Sound Studies Reader. Edited by Jonathan Sterne, Taylor and Francis, 2012.

Chion, Michel. “The Three Listening Modes,” Sound Studies Reader. Edited by Jonathan Sterne, Taylor and Francis, 2012.

White Freedom: Kanye West’s Refusal to give into Societal Notions on Race and Music

Josh Lodish

March 24, 2019

Professor Rippeon

Voice, Noise, Sound, Sense


It may upend your perceptions of race and politics to hear a story of a white actor calling out a black artist for their endorsement and support of Donald Trump. You may be less surprised if you knew that black artist was Kanye West. In the season opener of Saturday Night Live (SNL), Kanye West finished his performancewith a defense of his support for the President. Kanye claimed he doesn’t “agree with everything anyone does,” and that “we have the right to independent thought” (Corsarcelli). However controversial this claim may be, at its purest form, Kanye states that he has the right to support whomever he wants. He has the right for ‘independent thought’ regardless of circumstance. Nonetheless, Kanye immediately received criticism from the popular black artists Questlove and Swizz Beatz, who stated Trump was “blatantly hurting our people” (Corsarcelli). Furthermore, Kanye received intense pushback from Pete Davidson, a white actor on the SNL cast, who claimed “being mentally ill is not an excuse to act like a jackass,” calling out Kanye for his unethical stances on politics (Weekend Update). Davidson explained that Kanye’s actions offend people, for example, “every black person ever” (Weekend Update). As a white man, Davidson not only criticizes Kanye for his honesty and independent thought, but tells Kanye how he should act, in large part, due to his race.   

In his endorsement of Trump, Kanye West attempts to alter our expectations of black men and artists. Kanye forces us to ask what our expectations are, and knowingly challenges them. When describing the Veil, W.E.B DuBois focuses on a similar process. The Veil forces black individuals to see themselves “through the revelation of the other world,” by constantly processing their actions through the dominant white culture (Brodwin 307). Years later, Jennifer Lynn Stoever extended DuBois’ Veil claiming that “sound and listening enable racism’s evolving presence,” illustrating through her concept of the Sonic Color Line, that race is strongly connected to sound (Stoever 5). Both the Veil and the Sonic Color line rely upon expectations of obedience. These expectations only become visible when someone challenges them and is forcibly corrected. 

Yeezus, Kanye’s sixth studio album, challenges our expectations of obedience in terms of race and music, thus disregarding both the Sonic Color Line, and the Veil. Kanye has fielded criticism for his actions (by both black and white artists), and continues to stand for what he believes in. He does not accept a lifestyle in which he must alter his actions to fit the desires of dominant white culture. Instead Kanye acts genuinely, staying true to himself, and in the end of his speech on SNL, asks us one basic thing, “if you want the world to move forward- try love,” (Corsarcelli). In this essay I will demonstrate that Kanye West disregards the Veil and the Sonic Color Line both through three songs on Yeezusand his endorsement of Trump.

Part 1: Yeezus

Blood on the Leaves:

To create the track Blood on the Leaves, Kanye sampled Strange Fruit– a song written by Billie Holiday about the murders of African Americans by lynching. This song undoubtedly carries an important and heavy weight in terms of race in America. Kanye chooses to take this intense song about murder and morph it into one about an unhealthy, oversexualized, and drug fueled relationship as demonstrated by his lines, “my second-string bitches,” and “when you tried your first molly” (Blood on the Leaves). By ignoring the historical context of the sample and completely redefining to himself what the song means, Kanye explicitly goes against the Veil, which limits black’s ability to “see themselves outside of what white America describes and prescribes for them” (UVA). In describing his music Kanye tells us he would, “rather piss a bunch of people off and make myself happy than make everyone else happy and be pissed off inside” (Dombal). Clearly, Kanye does not want to buy into how he should act in regard to artistry, fame, or race. Kanye lives by the terms he sets for himself. Through a disregard for societal expectations for his sampling choice in Blood on the Leaves, and his genuine opinions on the understanding of his music, Kanye denies the Sonic Color Line and the Veil. 

New Slaves:

Undoubtedly a song titled New Slaves is designed to be provocative. New Slaves follows along with Yeezus’ themes of confrontation and vanity with lines such as “You see there’s leaders and there’s followers, but I’d rather be a dick than a swallower” (New Slaves). Kanye references “Broke ni**a racism,” being told he shouldn’t touch anything in the store, and “rich ni**a racism,” when he’s profiled for what he wants to buy, being told “all you blacks want all the same things” (New Slaves). These lines demonstrate Kanye’s experience with the Sonic Color Line and the “imposed racial identities and structures of racist violence” thrust upon him as a black man (Stoever 4). Kanye connects contemporary racism to Jim Crow, “the era when clean water was only served to the fairer skin,” and to slavery, both in the song title, and lines such as ‘they wasn’t satisfied unless I picked the cotton myself’ (New Slaves).  He asks us (his audience) to re-evaluate our concepts of racism in America and he acknowledges, as the Sonic Color Line explains, that sound has been “ever present in the construction of race and the performance of racial oppression” (Stoever 4). In forcing us to re-evaluate their perceptions of racism, as opposed to reinforcing them, Kanye disregards the Veil and the Sonic Color Line. 

I am a God

I am a God is perhaps the song on Yeezus that most directly challenges our societal expectations of race and music, as exemplified through this short interview of Kanye describing the song. In the interview, Kanye makes clear that America expects black artists (especially rappers) to possess stereotypical characteristics such as ‘pimping,’ or being a ‘gangsta’ (Zane Low). He states that society does not expect black artists to be self-confident or articulate. And for a black man to claim he’s a god? Well society would find that blasphemous. Kanye chose I am a Godas the title for his track to cause a visceral reaction. Kanye understands how the Sonic Color Line operates “as an organ of racial discernment” (Stoever 4); that the Veil commands the black artist to “channel his natural abilities and personal aims into political and social arenas” (Browdwin 303). Nonetheless, Kanye challenges these expectations, and uses his music to alter society’s perception of what it means to be a black male rapper. Kanye does so by calling himself a literal God. 

Part 2: Endorsing Trump

            Not only does Kanye’s music on Yeezus exemplify his rejection of the Sonic Color Line and the Veil, but so does his endorsement of President Donald Trump. By supporting Trump, Kanye delivers the shock value that he went for on Yeezus. He is being genuine, and provocative, acting so they we think, why? Kanye challenges our expectations of race and does so intentionally. In his article, I’m not Black, I’m Kanye, Ta-Nehsi Coates writes about Kanye’s endorsement of Trump and claims that Kanye desires freedom in his actions. But not any kind of freedom- white freedom. Coates describes white freedom as, “freedom without consequence…criticism…to be proud and ignorant” (Coates).  Essentially, Coates claims Kanye simply wants to be freed from racial expectations and to function as an artist defined only by himself. When DuBois describes the Veil as something that, “yielded him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world,” he was describing the intense filtering of self through white culture that African-Americans are forced to do (UVA). In endorsing Trump, Kanye removes the idea that black men should filter themselves and their actions through the lens of race. In an interviewwith Jimmy Kimmel, Kanye states “everyone around me tried to pick my candidate for me,” further describing a worry that if he endorsed Trump, people would “kick him out of the black community because blacks are supposed to have a monolithic thought” (Jimmy Kimmel).  Kanye knows the expectations thrust upon him as a black man. He is perfectly aware of the veil society expects him to see himself through. This level of “true self-consciousness,” which DuBois claimed was impossible in a life with the Veil, is attainable for Kanye exactly because he refuses it. Kanye describes his endorsement of Trump as a representation of overcoming fear, and “doing what you felt no matter the consequences” (Jimmy Kimmel). Kanye refuses the Veil and the Sonic Color Line by dictating his own life, challenging societal perceptions of black men, and above all else- being true to himself, no matter the consequences.  


            Kanye West refuses the expectations thrust upon him by the Sonic Color Line and the Veil as demonstrated through his honest and unique work on Yeezus, and his endorsement of Trump. In his song Ye vs. The People, Kanye has a rap-argument with Atlanta rapper T.I, defending his endorsement of Trump. Kanye drops insightful lines such as, “Make America Great had a negative perception, I added empathy, care, love, and affection” and “is it better if I rap about crack, because its cultural?” (Ye vs. The People). In his rap, Kanye focuses in on one main point – Love. Kanye tells us that “yall be leading with hate,” but instead we should be leading with love, which he claims to have done by adding it to Trump’s slogan (Ye vs. The People). As he did in his SNL speech when he stated, “if you want the world to move forward- try love,” Kanye asks us in Ye vs. The Peoplenot to focus on perceptions or expectations of people, but instead to focus on being genuine and honest (Coscarelli). People like Pete Davidson may have a hard time accepting Kanye’s proud endorsement of Donald Trump, but throughout it all Kanye has made clear that he doesn’t care. Kanye, through his music and actions has consistently challenged societal expectations of race, as set out in the Sonic Color Line and the Veil and left us with his message of love. 

Works Cited:

  1. Stoever, Jennifer Lynn. The Sonic Color Line: Race and the Cultural Politics of Listening. NYU Press, 2016. JSTOR,
  2. Ta-Nehsi Coates. “I’m not Black, I’m Kanye”. Atlantic Magazine.7 May, 2018.
  3. The Veil and Double Consciousness. University of Virginia Press (UVA).
  4. Ryan Dombal. Kanye West, Yeezus. Pitchfork Magazine. 18 June, 2013.
  5. Kanye West. Interview by Zane Low. “Kanye West Explains his Meaning behind “I Am A God” with Zane Low”. December 31, 2013.
  6. Kanye West. Interview with Jimmy Kimmel. “Jimmy Kimmel’s Full Interview with Kanye West”. April 10, 2018.
  7. Joe Coscarelli. Kanye West Ends ‘S.N.L’ With Speech About Trump and Bullying. The New York Times. 30 September, 2018. 
  8. Weekend Update. Interview with Pete Davidson. “Weekend Update: Pete Davidson on Kanye West- SNL”. Youtube. Saturday Night Live. October 7, 2018.
  9. Stanley Brodwin. The Veil Transcended: Form and Meaning in W.E.B DuBois’ “The Souls of Black Folk”. Sage Publications. 
  10. Kanye West. “Blood on the Leaves.” Yeezus, Def Jam Records, 2013. Youtube,
  11. Kanye West. “New Slaves.” Yeezus, Def Jam Records, 2013. Youtube,
  12. Kanye West. “Ye vs. The People.” Def Jam Records, 2018. Youtube,